HWST 142: Mahi‘ai Kalo II - Traditional and Modern Techniques of Lo‘i Kalo Production

Credits 3 Lecture Hours 3

This course expands on the traditional Hawaiian kalo growing knowledge covered in the first class to include the ecology of wetland kalo systems, focusing on traditional loʻi techniques, and the integration of nutrient flow analysis through the ahupuaʻa and nutrient management practices for lo‘i kalo. Additional emphasis is placed on both scientific and practical approaches. Cooking and eating are used throughout the course to demonstrate linkages between kalo and human nutrition and wellbeing. The course will consist of a mixture of lecture and hands-on field experience.


A grade of C or better in HWST 140 or consent of instructor

Course Outcomes
  • Explain traditional Hawaiian and modern technical farming terminology and processes;
  • Discuss nutrients, nutrient budgets, or nutrient cycling in loʻi kalo farming;
  • Identify major patterns of nutrient flows in ahupuaʻa/watershed systems and the impacts of changes to those patterns.